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articles on phobias

Phobias may be irrational, but people with phobias do not fail reality testing. Agoraphobia. Agoraphobia is a fear of places or situations that you can’t escape from. The word itself refers to Author: Andrea Wodele And Matthew Solan. While not comprehensive, this phobia list offers a glimpse of the many phobias that can have a serious impact on an individual's life. As you may notice while you browse through this list, most specific phobias fall into one of four major categories: fears of the natural environment, fears related to animals, fear related to medical treatments or issues, and fears related to specific situations. Phobias cause people to worry about, dread, feel upset by, and avoid the things or situations they fear because the physical sensations of fear can be so intense. So having a phobia can interfere with normal activities. A person with a phobia of dogs might feel afraid to .

Where Do Fears and Phobias Come From? | Psychology Today

Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, articles on phobias, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy CBT components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined.

Sixteen adults aged 45—68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome articles on phobias of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group.

No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults. Anxiety disorders in older adults have received relatively little empirical attention in the treatment literature.

Although most current prevalence estimates suggest that anxiety disorders later in life may be less frequent, high relative prevalence rates for anxiety compared to other mental disorders and the significant negative impact of anxiety on the lives of older people argue for its importance. Anxiety disorders have been found to be twice as frequent as affective disorders, and 4—8 times more frequent articles on phobias major depressive disorders, in older samples Beck and Stanley These disorders have also been reported to be more prevalent than depression or severe cognitive impairment among older adults Regier et al Anxiety symptoms are associated with reduced quality of life, increased mortality, impaired ability to carry out Instrumental Activities of Daily Living IADLspoorer health, more chronic illness, and elevated levels of reported pain in older cohorts reviewed in Scogin et al Findings that older people with phobic or panic disorders have higher relative risk of ischemic heart disease, stroke, and death by suicide indicate that anxiety disorders may be associated with greater morbidity and mortality, underscoring the importance of addressing anxiety issues in this population Krasucki et al ; Stanley and Beck Finally, older adults have been found to experience symptoms of anxiety disruptive enough to require intervention, articles on phobias, even if insufficient to warrant formal diagnosis Himmelfarb and Murrell Articles on phobias, Schaub and Linden suggest that while the contribution of anxiety to the spectrum of mental disorders seems to decrease with age, anxiety symptoms are an almost daily experience for many older people.

Findings are inconsistent with respect to the relative prevalence of various anxiety disorders in older cohorts. Several studies have reported phobias to be the most common anxiety disorder among older people eg, Regier et alwhereas others have not eg, Bland et al However, more recent research by Ritchie et al.

The overall prevalence of specific phobias as well as their prevalence relative to other phobia subtypes in later life is also somewhat unclear. The highest prevalence rates have been found by Lindesay, Briggs and Murphywho report a Although investigation of effective ways to address anxiety in this population is critical, treatment research has remained scant. Most research in this area has primarily focused on older people with anxiety symptoms rather than diagnoses eg, articles on phobias, De Berry et al ; Scogin et al ; uncontrolled clinical case reports eg, Thyer ; Rowan et al and treatment studies lacking a no treatment control condition eg, King and Barrowclough ; Stanley, Beck and Glassco The existing research articles on phobias has provided some evidence of the utility of CBT for self-report anxiety symptoms in community samples of older articles on phobias see McCarthy et al ; Hersen and van Hasselt however well-controlled research investigating the efficacy of established treatments in clinical samples over the age of 50 remains sparse.

Perhaps the most controlled and comprehensive study in the area of late-life anxiety is that conducted by Stanley et al investigating the efficacy of CBT for late-life GAD, articles on phobias. Stanley et al recruited 85 adults aged 60 years and over through media announcements.

Despite evidence that phobic disorders are one of the most common anxiety diagnoses articles on phobias this population group Ritchie et al and are one of the easiest to treat among younger samples Antony and Barlowthey have remained almost unstudied in older populations, with case studies eg, Thyer lending only limited understanding of treatment efficacies in this age group. The current study aims to extent existing treatment protocols, including exposure therapy components, for specific phobias to a sample of older adults in order to assess the efficacy of such techniques among this population, articles on phobias.

The impact of age upon outcome is also of interest, articles on phobias, and inclusion of a middle aged and older sample will allow comparison of treatment effect on the basis of the age variable.

The treatment group consisted of 16 subjects between 45 and 68 years of age, with a mean age of 55 years. The group consisted of 3 males and articles on phobias females. Although this clearly represents a significant difference across gender, this was expected given that research has suggested that phobias are much more common in women than men eg, Arnarson et al In terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria, the current study has aimed to find a more balanced approach in line with recent suggestions in the literature for improved effectiveness and generalizability of results eg, Guthrie As such, subjects were not excluded if they had current co-morbid diagnoses if such conditions did not require more immediate treatmentwere articles on phobias taking anxiety medications as long as dosages remained stablehad a past history of alcohol use, did not complete all sessions within the designated time periods, or had previously been involved in anxiety treatment programs, articles on phobias.

Subjects were excluded if they were outside the ages of 45—75 years of age, had other major psychiatric or cognitive problems requiring immediate treatment, psychotic or organic illnesses, articles on phobias, major untreated substance abuse, or disease of the heart or lungs.

People with flying phobia, injection phobia and blood phobia were also specifically excluded from this study due to the practical difficulties with exposure techniques for these phobic stimuli, articles on phobias. Approximately 44 people completed phone-screening interviews after expressing an interest in the project.

Of the 28 deemed eligible for participation, 5 declined further participation and 23 completed the initial interview and were accepted into the program. Of these 23, 4 withdrew prior to treatment commencement and 2 withdrew in weeks 4 and 5, leaving 16 participants having completed treatment.

Of the 50 participants that indicated they were willing to participate in follow-up studies, the first 24 subjects able to be contacted by telephone by the researcher were administered the phobia section of the SCID-IV and sent questionnaires identical to those given to the treatment and wait-list groups outlined above.

Thus the articles on phobias group consisted of 13 subjects between 52 and 70 years of age, with a mean age of 59 years. The group consisted of 1 male and 12 females. These control group participants were then sent an identical questionnaire after a articles on phobias of 10 weeks to assess change in variables of interest over this period in an untreated sample.

The Mini-Mental Status Exam MMSE Folstein et al was utilized to screen for gross cognitive impairment; participants scoring less that 24 were to be excluded from the study none met this criteria.

The Fear Questionnaire FQ Marks and Matthews is a self-report measure designed to monitor change in patients with phobias. The Symptom ChecklistRevised SCLR Derogatis is a self-report measure of psychological symptom patterns and provide an estimation of current, point-in-time psychological symptom status Derogatis This measure has also been used in a number of studies with older adults, and articles on phobias been found to be sensitive to post-treatment improvements in general functioning among older people Scogin et al Screening of subjects was conducted initially via telephone.

Telephone screening questions addressed specific, easily identified exclusionary criteria such as phobia type, age, articles on phobias, present involvement in psychotherapy and presence of serious contraindicative articles on phobias conditions.

Following initial phone screening, participants were asked to attend a face-to-face interview. This phase included signing of consent forms, assessment of the onset and history of their phobic symptoms and further assessment of treatment suitability, including the administration of the MMSE and the SCID-IV screening and diagnostic instruments, articles on phobias. Subjects passing screening processes were then alternately allocated to one of two conditions: treatment anxiety management training plus exposure therapy or no-treatment wait-list control based on interview date.

A single crossover approach was employed, whereby those subjects in wait-list control groups received treatment subsequent to first round completions. Participants in the treatment group articles on phobias administered questionnaires at the conclusion of the initial group session session one and following the final individual exposure session session ten.

A mid-treatment questionnaire was also administered at the conclusion of the final group session session fivewhich contained the same questionnaires as pre and post sessions but omitted the more laborious SCLR.

The treatment program involved a total of 10 sessions, including 5 group-training sessions initially, followed by 5 sessions articles on phobias individual therapy. Each session both group and individual was approximately 1. Group sessions were conducted in small groups of 2—7 members.

Each group session was facilitated by two registered psychologists enrolled in postgraduate studies at the University of Queensland. The first author Woodward facilitated one group with another postgraduate psychologist, while the other three groups were run with two postgraduate psychologists. Individual sessions were then conducted one-on-one by group therapists, so articles on phobias each subject had previously had contact with their individual therapist during group sessions.

A manualized treatment approach was utilized, articles on phobias, based on the treatment protocols of several authors, including Borkovec and Costello ; Antony, articles on phobias, Craske, and Barlow ; Craske, Antony and Barlow ; Antony and Barlow This was followed by primary session content, including either presentation of psycho-educational material or introduction and practice of a new skill.

Take-home tasks were then allocated and explained. The manuals used in this study are available articles on phobias the first author Pachana. Several researchers have suggested minor alterations in treatment process that may enhance outcome when working with older adults Koder et al ; Hinrichsen and Dick-Siskin ; Garner Specifically, it has been suggested that older people may need longer socialization into therapy with a greater emphasis on treatment rationale, a slower pace of therapy, and greater reliance on the utilization of memory aids and reinforcement strategies, such as summaries, handouts, and verbal repetition of themes and issues throughout therapy, articles on phobias.

It has also been suggested that older people can be comforted by knowing that there is a plan of action that will guide weekly meetings and through selection of realistic and concrete goals. The current treatment approach was designed with the above recommendations in mind. Early sessions were devoted to psychoeducation and a thorough introduction to the program, with active session content not introduced until session three.

During the early sessions, time was allowed for group members to discuss how they might have acquired their phobia, articles on phobias, and discussion of weekly encounters with phobic stimulus was maintained throughout all sessions to allow a chance for shared experiences and encouragement between group members to occur, articles on phobias.

Throughout the sessions, a clear treatment rationale was offered for all techniques. In terms of treatment components, it was determined that session content should incorporate both in-vivo exposure techniques, which have consistently been found to be the cornerstone of phobia treatment, and other treatment components, articles on phobias, such as psychoeducation, anxiety management and cognitive and relaxation procedures.

Although evidence for the utility articles on phobias exposure therapy in older adults is currently limited to several single-subject case studies eg, Thyerconsistent evidence of strong treatment effects for this technique among younger people argues for its inclusion in the current treatment approach. Similarly, although the efficacy articles on phobias including cognitive and relaxation components in phobia treatment protocols has not been firmly established, there were salient reasons for their inclusion in the current study.

Relaxation training, for example, has been found to significantly reduce stress-related articles on phobias, psychosomatic symptoms, self-reported tension levels and state anxiety in older people De Berry ; De Berry et al ; Scogin et al Finally, studies utilizing cognitive techniques for both anxiety King and Barrowclough and depression Koder et al have been articles on phobias to be effective in older populations.

Of the 19 clinical participants that commenced the treatment program, 16 completed the total of 10 sessions. Of these, 12 completed within a two-week window of the 10 weeks allocated, while 4 took longer to complete due to cancellations or personal circumstances.

It should be noted, however that all 16 clinical participants completed the same number of sessions, of the same approximate duration. All 13 wait-list controls completed initial articles on phobias follow-up questionnaires, articles on phobias. Mean scores on all outcome measures are included in Table 1. Posthoc analysis revealed significant differences between all time points. The SCLR was not administered articles on phobias time two, and thus comparisons between mid-point time periods are not possible.

Although violations of the assumptions of parametric statistical procedures suggested articles on phobias non-parametric analysis would, articles on phobias this instance, be a more appropriate indicator of treatment outcome, a lack of non-parametric alternatives to the ANOVA meant that parametric options were necessary. It should be noted, however, articles on phobias such procedures are at best exploratory and the reliability of the results significantly limited by such violations.

This suggests that the impact of time on outcome variables differed between articles on phobias groups. Post-hoc pair-wise comparisons between time one and time three scores for the control group were conducted using the non-parametric Wilcoxin Signed Ranks Test due to the normality assumption violations mentioned above, articles on phobias.

These results confirm that unlike the significant reductions in the treatment group in phobic avoidance, phobic severity and anxiety as measured by the GAI across time as noted abovethere were no significant changes on phobic avoidance or severity across time, and a significant increase in general anxiety from time one to time three, for the control group sample.

The current study has demonstrated the potential beneficial effects of a CBT-based program for the treatment of specific phobias in a small sample of mid to older aged adults.

Although past research has supported the extension of established treatment protocols for other anxiety symptoms and disorders to older people, none have examined the treatment of specific phobias among older populations.

Among the treatment group of the current sample, improvements were noted post-treatment on almost all outcome variables, including phobia avoidance, articles on phobias, phobia severity, anxiety as measured by the anxiety-depression scale of the Articles on phobias, the GAI and STAI-Traitdepression and overall symptom articles on phobias and severity, articles on phobias.

Interestingly, state anxiety did not exhibit significant reductions across the treatment period. Past research has demonstrated the positive therapeutic effects of exposure therapy in individual older articles on phobias with specific phobias and obsessive compulsive disorder Thyer ; Rowan et al ; Calamari et althe benefits of relaxation and cognitive techniques among older people with general anxiety complaints De Berry et al ; Scogin et aland the efficacy of CBT techniques articles on phobias older people diagnosed with GAD King and Barrowclough ; Stanley, Beck and Zebb ; Stanley et al The current research is, however, the first study to demonstrate efficacy of established treatment protocols for mid-age and older adults with diagnosed specific phobias.

Findings regarding reductions in phobic avoidance and severity are in line with past treatment research among younger samples, articles on phobias, which have consistently reported strong treatment effects for exposure-based treatment of specific phobias Antony and Barlow Past research has also supported the differences found between treatment and control conditions in the current study Antony and Barlowalthough as noted such conclusions must be drawn with caution due to problems with control group conditions.

Such results suggest that exposure therapy is an effective treatment among mid-aged to older adults, and can be extended to older cohorts with minimal changes to the treatment approach.

Exposure sessions were not of longer duration, nor of greater frequency, than those reported articles on phobias younger samples, and were similar to treatment duration previously reported for exposure treatment among single-subject studies of older people Thyer ; Rowan et al Despite claims that exposure therapy may not be appropriate among older people McCarthy articles on phobias althis study supports past suggestions from single case studies that anxiety was well tolerated and does not interfere with the course of therapy Thyer and requires only minor modifications for older subjects Calamari et al


Phobias: MedlinePlus


articles on phobias


Phobias cause people to worry about, dread, feel upset by, and avoid the things or situations they fear because the physical sensations of fear can be so intense. So having a phobia can interfere with normal activities. A person with a phobia of dogs might feel afraid to . While not comprehensive, this phobia list offers a glimpse of the many phobias that can have a serious impact on an individual's life. As you may notice while you browse through this list, most specific phobias fall into one of four major categories: fears of the natural environment, fears related to animals, fear related to medical treatments or issues, and fears related to specific situations. Animal phobias such as the fear of snakes, spiders, rodents, and dogs. Natural environment phobias such as a fear of heights, storms, water, and of the dark. Situational phobias (fears triggered by a specific situation) including the fear of enclosed spaces (claustrophobia), flying, driving, tunnels, and bridges.